Australia wrapped up a 4-0 series victory by winning the fifth and final Ashes Test by an innings and 123 runs on Monday.England captain Joe Root eventually succumbed to illness and the lower order could muster little resistance after lunch on the fifth day.Josh Hazlewood took the final wicket to dismiss the hosts for 180, as Joe Root’s battling half-century after being released from hospital and allowed to resume batting Monday briefly gave the embattled tourists hope of salvaging a draw at the Sydney Cricket Ground.England’s slip toward a humbling 4-0 Ashes series defeat hastened quickly on the final day, as Pat Cummins blew away the lower order after lunch with pace and short pitched bowling to finish with 4-39, with spinner Nathan Lyon taking 3-54.Australia’s bowling attack – the potency of which has been one of the main points of difference between the two sides – mopped up the last four batsmen at the cost of just 36 runs after the break at Sydney Cricket Ground.Paceman Pat Cummins removed Jonny Bairstow (38), Stuart Broad (4) and Mason Crane (2) to finish with figures of 4-39, while Nathan Lyon (3-54) had taken the only wicket of the opening session as he continued his dominance of Moeen Ali.Josh Hazlewood performed the coup de grace when he had James Anderson caught behind for two.Australia’s batsmen also played a full part in the return of the coveted urn, with Mitchell Marsh, his brother Shaun and Usman Khawaja all getting into three figures as the hosts made 649 declared in their reply to England’s first innings 346.advertisementFIGHTING SPIRIT(AP Photo)England managed only three centuries to Australia’s nine over the series, with home skipper Steve Smith alone matching their tally.The tourists will, however, take pride from refusing to buckle despite being outclassed in four of the five tests and Root’s determination to bat on Monday while clearly unwell typified their fighting spirit.The 27-year-old was 42 not out with England 93 for four – still 210 runs from forcing Australia to bat again – at close of play on day four but experienced diarrhoea and vomiting overnight and was taken to hospital for treatment.England initially said he was treated for severe dehydration but later revised the diagnosis to viral gastroenteritis that had nothing to do with Sunday’s high temperatures at the ground.The skipper reached the ground in time for the start of play but out-of-form Moeen went out to bat in his stead, making 13 before almost inevitably falling lbw to Lyon.Off spinner Lyon dismissed the all-rounder seven times in nine innings over the series with four of those leg before decisions.Root received an ovation when he came out to resume his innings and had soon secured his 37th test half century with three runs to fine leg.He suffered a recurrence of the symptoms during the lunch break, though, and Tom Curran, who finished the day 23 not out, came out to bat in his place for the second session, leaving Root retired hurt for 58.(With Reuters inputs)
(PhysOrg.com) — Canadian Louise Page, associate professor at the University of Victoria, BC, has solved a mystery that has perplexed zoologists since early 19th century naturalists first wondered if venomous cone snails might have developed their poison producing glands through evolution of their esophagus somehow; speculation that of course led many to wonder if that were so, how did the snail continue with swallowing and digesting its food. Cone of poison: The secret behind the cone snail’s venom pump More information: Developmental modularity and phenotypic novelty within a biphasic life cycle: morphogenesis of a cone snail venom gland, Proc. R. Soc. B, Published online before print May 18, 2011, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0501AbstractThe venom gland of predatory cone snails (Conus spp.), which secretes neurotoxic peptides that rapidly immobilize prey, is a proposed key innovation for facilitating the extraordinary feeding behaviour of these gastropod molluscs. Nevertheless, the unusual morphology of this gland has generated controversy about its evolutionary origin and possible homologues in other gastropods. I cultured feeding larvae of Conus lividus and cut serial histological sections through the developing foregut during larval and metamorphic stages to examine the development of the venom gland. Results support the hypothesis of homology between the venom gland and the mid-oesophageal gland of other gastropods. They also suggest that the mid-region of the gastropod foregut, like the anterior region, is divisible into dorsal and ventral developmental modules that have different morphological, functional and ontogenetic fates. In larvae of C. lividus, the ventral module of the middle foregut transformed into the anatomically novel venom gland of the post-metamorphic stage by rapidly pinching-off from the main dorsal channel of the mid-oesophagus, an epithelial remodelling process that may be similar to other cases where epithelial tubes and vesicles arise from a pre-existing epithelial sheet. The developmental remodelling mechanism could have facilitated an abrupt evolutionary transition to the derived morphology of this important gastropod feeding innovation. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Researcher shows how cone snails developed poison gland from spare gut parts (2011, May 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-cone-snails-poison-gland-gut.html © 2010 PhysOrg.com Conus geographicus (a marine snail) Credit: Kerry Matz/National Institute of General Medical Services Cones as they are known colloquially, are a genus of snails that use a small tube to shoot harpoon-like teeth connected to a radula (a spaghetti like string) through a proboscis at suspecting prey to stun or kill it; they then haul their prey back to them and devour it, spitting out the parts they don’t like. The snail can turn and point the proboscis (which looks sort of like a cartoon version of a tiny elephant’s trunk) at its prey and after loading a tooth with poison launch it’s “harpoon” by forcefully contracting muscles, situated at the base of the proboscis. Some estimates put the number of different species of cone snails in the neighborhood of six hundred or so, of varying sizes and coloring; though most are pretty little, some can grow to as long as 23 centimeters (about nine inches) and pack sufficient punch to kill a human being.Page found the answer in Hawaii, home of the cone snail species Conus lividus, where, as she describes in her paper in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, she grabbed a mass of eggs, took them back to her lab and set about hatching and raising them. Along the way she singled out specimens during different stages of their development (when they were still larvae) fixed them with chemicals and sliced them up and photographed them to see what was going on. She then fed the whole batch of photos into a computer program that allowed her to watch as the larvae developed, and was then able to see that the cone snail originally has two sets of digestive tracts, one of which develops into the venom gland. Mystery solved.Page explains that the process is known as modular evolution, whereby a species develops a trait over time without disrupting other important bodily functions, something that has been seen in a wide range of other animals and insects.