Scientists Working Toward Better Batteries Citation: New Hitachi Li-ion batteries to last ten years (2010, April 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-04-hitachi-li-ion-batteries-ten-years.html (PhysOrg.com) — Hitachi has announced they may be able to double the life of rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries through the development of a new cathode material. The material was developed in conjunction with the company Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery, and while it will not be useful initially for small applications such as laptops, cameras or smartphones, it may be ideal for larger batteries in hybrid or electric vehicles, and for storing excess energy produced by wind farm generators. © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: Original Hitachi paper (Japanese): www.hitachi.co.jp/New/cnews/mo … h/2010/04/0405a.html Explore further The new battery uses more manganese for the positive electrode and reduces the use of the far more expensive cobalt. Hitachi says the new cathode material is the composite oxide lithium manganese spinel (LIMn2O4), a crystalline material that is much more stable than the previous cathode material. Its stability makes the cathode more resistant to attack by the electrolyte, and inhibits leaching of cathode material into the electrolyte (both processes that eventually stop the battery holding a charge). The new cathode material extends the life of the battery to ten years from the more usual average working life of five years, and it also boosts the battery’s capacity. The battery will also be cheaper than current lithium-ion batteries because of the reduced use of cobalt.Lead-acid batteries are usually used for large installations because of their longer working life of up to 10 years, and also because of their lower cost. Lithium-ion batteries have about quadruple the power density of the lead-acid batteries, so if their lifetime could be doubled and the cost reduced, they could replace the traditional batteries for the larger applications.Lithium-ion batteries are found in almost all portable electronic devices these days, and the new battery technology may be able to be scaled down for use in these gadgets. The battery is at prototype stage at the moment, but Hitachi expects it to be available for larger scale industrial uses probably early in 2011.The new battery was produced with the aid of Japan’s New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, and Hitachi hopes its concentration on batteries for ecologically sustainable industries such as wind farms and electric vehicles will help it return to profitability. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Image credit: Hitachi
The new OLET, which is 10 times more efficient than any other reported OLET, has a trilayer structure. Electrons from the green layer and holes from the blue layer move to the middle red layer, where excitons are formed and light is emitted. Image copyright: Nature Publishing Group. (PhysOrg.com) — Already, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are becoming commercialized for light display applications due to their advantages such as low fabrication costs and large-area emission. But OLEDs also have intrinsic efficiency limitations due to their structure, which might limit their future development in terms of brightness. Now, a team of researchers has found that another organic semiconductor-based device, the organic light-emitting transistor (OLET), can dramatically increase the efficiency of OLEDs since OLETs have the structure of a transistor rather than a diode. In their recent study, the researchers have created OLETs that are 10 times more efficient than any previously reported OLET, as well as more than twice as efficient as an optimized OLED made with the same materials. More information: Raffaella Capelli, et al. “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes.” Nature Materials. Doi:10.1038/NMAT2751 The researchers, Raffaella Capelli, et al., from the Institute for Nanostructured Materials (ISMN) in Bologna, Italy, and the Polyera Corporation in Skokie, Illinois, USA, have published their results in a recent issue of Nature Materials.As the researchers explain, OLED technology is by far the most developed of the two organic semiconductor-based devices. But the biggest drawback to using OLEDs for light display applications is that they intrinsically suffer from photon loss and exciton quenching. Both effects are a direct result of the structure of OLEDs: The close spatial proximity of the electrical contacts and the light-generation region causes some emitted photons to be absorbed, resulting in photon loss. Similarly, the largest quenching effect in OLEDs, called exciton-charge quenching, reduces the number of excitons, and occurs due to a spatial overlap of excitons and charges. Because OLETs have a transistor-based structure, researchers have recently been looking for ways to suppress these deleterious effects inherent in the OLED architecture. So far, they have only managed to prevent one type of quenching called exciton-metal quenching, which was done by moving the light-emitting area further away from the electrodes. However, the other effects still remained, so that the best OLETs only achieved an efficiency of no more than 0.6%.In the new study, the researchers designed an OLET that could avoid photon losses and the two types of quenching. In demonstrations, the new OLETs achieved efficiencies of 5%. In comparison, equivalent OLEDs had efficiencies of just 0.01%, while optimized OLEDs with the same emitting layer as the OLETs achieved efficiencies of 2.2%, with the difference being due to their diode structure. (Although 2.2% is the highest reported efficiency for OLEDs based on fluorescent emitters, researchers have recently reported OLEDs based on phosphorescent emitting material with an efficiency on the order of 20%.) Citation: New OLETs emit light more efficiently than equivalent OLEDs (2010, May 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-05-olets-emit-efficiently-equivalent-oleds.html Explore further Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. The researchers call their novel device a tri-layer field-effect OLET due to its three organic semiconducting layers: a top 15-nm-thick p-channel layer that transports holes, a 40-nm-thick middle layer that emits light (the “exciton formation zone”), and a bottom 7-nm-thick n-channel layer that transports electrons. In this set-up, electrons and holes move from their respective layers to the middle layer, where excitons are formed and light is emitted. The three semiconductor layers are positioned on a three-layer substrate of glass, indium tin oxide, and PMMA, and two gold electrodes on top complete the design.The trilayer architecture offers several advantages. For one, the light-formation and light-emitting regions are located far enough away from the electrodes so that photon losses at the electrodes and exciton-metal quenching are prevented. Also, the light-emitting region is physically separated from the charge flows, which prevents exciton-charge quenching. For these reasons, the researchers describe the tri-layer OLET as a “contactless OLED,” where these deleterious effects are intrinsically prevented. In addition to these improvements, the researchers predict that the efficiency of the new OLET should be able to be increased even further with further adjustments, such as decreasing the operating voltage and carefully tuning every part of the structure.“Despite the necessary technical improvements, we believe that our tri-layer OLETs represent a viable route to increase even further the device efficiency,” Capelli, a researcher at ISMN, told PhysOrg.com.Overall, the scientists hope that the OLET represents a route toward developing practical organic light-emitting devices with unprecedented efficiency. The device could offer the potential for many applications, such as intense nanoscale light sources and optoelectronic systems.“The OLET is a new light emission concept, providing planar light sources that can be easily integrated in substrates of different natures (silicon, glass, plastic, paper, etc.) using standard microelectronic techniques,” said Michele Muccini, a researcher at ISMN. “Our devices provide planar micrometer-size light sources that might enable organic photonic applications like integrated on-chip bio-sensing and high resolution display technology with embedded electronics. Moreover, a long term perspective for OLETs could be related to the realization of an electrically pumped organic laser.” Liquid-OLED Offers More Light-Emitting Possibilities This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(PhysOrg.com) — Canadian Louise Page, associate professor at the University of Victoria, BC, has solved a mystery that has perplexed zoologists since early 19th century naturalists first wondered if venomous cone snails might have developed their poison producing glands through evolution of their esophagus somehow; speculation that of course led many to wonder if that were so, how did the snail continue with swallowing and digesting its food. Cone of poison: The secret behind the cone snail’s venom pump More information: Developmental modularity and phenotypic novelty within a biphasic life cycle: morphogenesis of a cone snail venom gland, Proc. R. Soc. B, Published online before print May 18, 2011, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0501AbstractThe venom gland of predatory cone snails (Conus spp.), which secretes neurotoxic peptides that rapidly immobilize prey, is a proposed key innovation for facilitating the extraordinary feeding behaviour of these gastropod molluscs. Nevertheless, the unusual morphology of this gland has generated controversy about its evolutionary origin and possible homologues in other gastropods. I cultured feeding larvae of Conus lividus and cut serial histological sections through the developing foregut during larval and metamorphic stages to examine the development of the venom gland. Results support the hypothesis of homology between the venom gland and the mid-oesophageal gland of other gastropods. They also suggest that the mid-region of the gastropod foregut, like the anterior region, is divisible into dorsal and ventral developmental modules that have different morphological, functional and ontogenetic fates. In larvae of C. lividus, the ventral module of the middle foregut transformed into the anatomically novel venom gland of the post-metamorphic stage by rapidly pinching-off from the main dorsal channel of the mid-oesophagus, an epithelial remodelling process that may be similar to other cases where epithelial tubes and vesicles arise from a pre-existing epithelial sheet. The developmental remodelling mechanism could have facilitated an abrupt evolutionary transition to the derived morphology of this important gastropod feeding innovation. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Researcher shows how cone snails developed poison gland from spare gut parts (2011, May 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-cone-snails-poison-gland-gut.html © 2010 PhysOrg.com Conus geographicus (a marine snail) Credit: Kerry Matz/National Institute of General Medical Services Cones as they are known colloquially, are a genus of snails that use a small tube to shoot harpoon-like teeth connected to a radula (a spaghetti like string) through a proboscis at suspecting prey to stun or kill it; they then haul their prey back to them and devour it, spitting out the parts they don’t like. The snail can turn and point the proboscis (which looks sort of like a cartoon version of a tiny elephant’s trunk) at its prey and after loading a tooth with poison launch it’s “harpoon” by forcefully contracting muscles, situated at the base of the proboscis. Some estimates put the number of different species of cone snails in the neighborhood of six hundred or so, of varying sizes and coloring; though most are pretty little, some can grow to as long as 23 centimeters (about nine inches) and pack sufficient punch to kill a human being.Page found the answer in Hawaii, home of the cone snail species Conus lividus, where, as she describes in her paper in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, she grabbed a mass of eggs, took them back to her lab and set about hatching and raising them. Along the way she singled out specimens during different stages of their development (when they were still larvae) fixed them with chemicals and sliced them up and photographed them to see what was going on. She then fed the whole batch of photos into a computer program that allowed her to watch as the larvae developed, and was then able to see that the cone snail originally has two sets of digestive tracts, one of which develops into the venom gland. Mystery solved.Page explains that the process is known as modular evolution, whereby a species develops a trait over time without disrupting other important bodily functions, something that has been seen in a wide range of other animals and insects.
More information: First Evidence of pep Solar Neutrinos by Direct Detection in Borexino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 051302 (2012). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.051302We observed, for the first time, solar neutrinos in the 1.0–1.5 MeV energy range. We determined the rate of pep solar neutrino interactions in Borexino to be 3.1±0.6stat±0.3syst counts/(day·100 ton). Assuming the pep neutrino flux predicted by the standard solar model, we obtained a constraint on the CNO solar neutrino interaction rate of <7.9 counts/(day·100 ton) (95% C.L.). The absence of the solar neutrino signal is disfavored at 99.97% C.L., while the absence of the pep signal is disfavored at 98% C.L. The necessary sensitivity was achieved by adopting data analysis techniques for the rejection of cosmogenic 11C, the dominant background in the 1–2 MeV region. Assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle solution to solar neutrino oscillations, these values correspond to solar neutrino fluxes of (1.6±0.3)×108 cm-2 s-1 and <7.7×108 cm-2 s-1 (95% C.L.), respectively, in agreement with both the high and low metallicity standard solar models. These results represent the first direct evidence of the pep neutrino signal and the strongest constraint of the CNO solar neutrino flux to date.Physics Synopsis © 2011 PhysOrg.com View of the Borexino "Stainless Steel Sphere" (SSS) from from the "Water Tank" Now, researchers deep beneath the ground in a mountain in Italy, working together in a group known as the Borexino Collaboration, have spotted the more elusive proton to electron to proton neutrino, a pep reaction that results in the formation of deuterium, a heavy form of hydrogen. To detect them, the team, as they describe in their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team had to develop a method of filtering out virtually all other neutrinos, including those from outer space.To detect the presence of neutrinos, researchers build underground facilities to use the Earth’s natural filtering abilities to remove particle clutter. Then, they fill a big vat with a special kind of liquid that reacts with the type of neutrino they are looking for. When one of the neutrinos strikes the liquid, a tiny flash or sparkle occurs. By measuring the number of sparkles that occur over a period of time the researchers can describe the amount of such neutrinos that are emitted by the sun, which helps to more fully understand the nuclear reactions that occur inside of it.Pp neutrinos have been easy to count, they are plentiful and high energy, which makes it easy to detect them when hitting the liquid. Pep, neutrinos on the other hand are low energy and more elusive and up till now have been mostly a theoretical concept. To detect their presence the team had to devise a means of filtering out virtually all other cosmic particles and then use a liquid that causes a sparkle when struck by a particle that has just 1.44 mega-electron-volts of energy, the distinctive signature of the pep neutrino. The team succeeded on both counts and were able to detect 3.1 pep neutrino strikes per day, per 100 tons of liquid.The new technique for cleaning and filtering out unwanted particles is ground breaking work and likely will be used by other scientists looking to measure other particles in other research efforts. Measuring elusive neutrinos flowing through the Earth, physicists learn more about the sun Explore further (PhysOrg.com) -- To learn more about how the sun works, scientists study particles that are emitted from it into space due to thermonuclear reactions that occur inside; by applying known physics principles, they can then deduce which sort of nuclear reactions are taking place. As one example, researchers have been able to identify high energy proton to proton interactions that are described as pp neutrinos by detecting them when they reach Earth. Citation: Borexino Collaboration succeeds in spotting pep neutrinos emitted from the sun (2012, February 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-02-borexino-collaboration-pep-neutrinos-emitted.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Researchers use squeezed light to enhance photonic force microscopy (2014, February 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-02-photonic-microscopy.html (Phys.org) —A team of researchers working in Australia has used “squeezed light” to enhance the sharpness of images produced using photonic force microscopy. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes how they applied a property of quantum mechanics to microscopy to offer resolution enhancement of up to 14 percent. More information: Subdiffraction-Limited Quantum Imaging within a Living Cell, Phys. Rev. X 4, 011017 (2014) [7 pages] prx.aps.org/abstract/PRX/v4/i1/e011017AbstractWe report both subdiffraction-limited quantum metrology and quantum-enhanced spatial resolution for the first time in a biological context. Nanoparticles are tracked with quantum-correlated light as they diffuse through an extended region of a living cell in a quantum-enhanced photonic-force microscope. This allows spatial structure within the cell to be mapped at length scales down to 10 nm. Control experiments in water show a 14% resolution enhancement compared to experiments with coherent light. Our results confirm the long-standing prediction that quantum-correlated light can enhance spatial resolution at the nanoscale and in biology. Combined with state-of-the-art quantum light sources, this technique provides a path towards an order of magnitude improvement in resolution over similar classical imaging techniques. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Photonic force microscopy is a type of microscopy where tiny fat granules and light are used to obtain images of objects too small to be seen with other techniques—measurements are taken of the light that is bounced back to create an image. The method suffers, however, when trying to create images beyond its scope—blurriness occurs due to noise from the light source.Blurriness from a light source occurs because of the nature of photons—they’re both wave and particle and as such don’t align with one another when traveling. When light strikes a source the photons are all at different points in their wave pattern. This diffraction is what causes the blurriness in microscopy. To get around it, the researchers with this latest effort used a technique where the light was squeezed before striking the object, guaranteeing that all the photons would be aligned.Squeezing light is based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, but instead of trying to deal with measuring the speed or position of a photon at a given point in time, it applies to the same sort of relationship between its phase and intensity. The researchers used this relationship to cause the photons that arrived at a target to all be in the same wave alignment, thus reducing diffraction and the inevitable blurriness that occurs when normal light is used in image creation.The overall objective of the researchers in this effort was to allow for a better view of the inner workings of living cells—specifically, they’d like to get a view of the pores that exist in cell walls that allow (and prevent) material to pass in and out. Current technology allows for viewing the pores, but only those in dead cells. Photonic force microscopy on the other hand can be used on living cells—thus improving its resolution and helping the researchers achieve their ultimate goal. , Physical Review X Researchers use quantum entanglement to improve differential interference contrast microscopy © 2014 Phys.org Credit: Michael Taylor/University of Queensland / via Physics Synopsis Journal information: Physical Review Letters
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Mount Paektu sits on the border between North Korea and China (where it is called Changbai). Prior studies have shown that the mountain experienced a massive explosion nearly a thousand years ago, one that likely was the largest volcanic event in recorded history. But prior studies have also shown that the eruption did not appear to have much of a climatic impact—little sulfur was found in ice cores in Greenland or in tree rings from other parts of the world. To better understand why such a strange set of circumstances may have come about, the researchers traveled to the site and collected pumice samples for study in their lab. Their first experiments centered around studying the amount of the gas in globules of magma that became preserved in the rock and represented the amount of sulfur present before the eruption. The team then compared what they found with other magma that had cooled afterward—the difference between the two represented the amount of sulfur that had been released into the air. But, the researchers noted, that amount would only represent the sulfur that was sent into the air during an eruption. To find out how much of the gas might have made its way into the air before the eruption, the researchers modeled the crystallization of magma as it cooled—some of its elements, they noted, would crystalize more easily than others. By factoring in the rate at which sulfur crystalizes, the team was able to calculate how much sulfur had escaped prior to eruption—42 megatons—a massive amount that would have eclipsed the amount spewed forth from the prior record holder, the Tambora eruption of 1815. 1000-year-old tree preserved in Millenium Eruption pyroclastic flow in China. Credit: Kayla Iacovino More information: K. Iacovino et al. Quantifying gas emissions from the “Millennium Eruption” of Paektu volcano, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea/China, Science Advances (2016). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600913AbstractPaektu volcano (Changbaishan) is a rhyolitic caldera that straddles the border between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and China. Its most recent large eruption was the Millennium Eruption (ME; 23 km3 dense rock equivalent) circa 946 CE, which resulted in the release of copious magmatic volatiles (H2O, CO2, sulfur, and halogens). Accurate quantification of volatile yield and composition is critical in assessing volcanogenic climate impacts but is challenging, particularly for events before the satellite era. We use a geochemical technique to quantify volatile composition and upper bounds to yields for the ME by examining trends in incompatible trace and volatile element concentrations in crystal-hosted melt inclusions. We estimate that the ME could have emitted as much as 45 Tg of S to the atmosphere. This is greater than the quantity of S released by the 1815 eruption of Tambora, which contributed to the “year without a summer.” Our maximum gas yield estimates place the ME among the strongest emitters of climate-forcing gases in the Common Era. However, ice cores from Greenland record only a relatively weak sulfate signal attributed to the ME. We suggest that other factors came into play in minimizing the glaciochemical signature. This paradoxical case in which high S emissions do not result in a strong glacial sulfate signal may present a way forward in building more generalized models for interpreting which volcanic eruptions have produced large climate impacts. Sulfur emission comparison between Tambora and Paektu eruptions. Credit: Carla Schaffer/AAAS Citation: New look at Mount Paektu eruption suggests it released far more sulfur than thought (2016, December 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-12-mount-paektu-eruption-sulfur-thought.html Journal information: Science Advances If such is the case, why is there little evidence of a global impact? The researchers suggest that it might be due to such factors as the eruption occurring at a high latitude where dispersal is limited; additionally, it happened in the winter, when global cooling is less noticeable. Explore further Crystal movement under Mount St. Helens may have indicated 1980 eruption was likely Preparing samples for analysis in the lab. Credit: Kayla Iacovino © 2016 Phys.org (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with members from the U.K., North Korea, China and the U.S. has found evidence that suggests the volcanic eruption of Mount Paektu in 946 C.E. spewed far more sulfur into the atmosphere than has been thought. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the team describes experiments they conducted on rocks retrieved from the site and offers a possible explanation for the lack of evidence from ice core samples. Preparing samples for analysis in the lab. Credit: Kayla Iacovino 1000-year-old tree preserved in Millenium Eruption pyroclastic flow in China. Credit: Kayla Iacovino Paektu crater. Credit: Kayla Iacovino
The weather is slightly muggy and all that rain water makes it tough to wear the palazzos. Pants get splattered with mud in a matter of minutes. So while skirts and shorts are perfect for the season, night outs deserve a little more dressing up. A knee-length dress could be the answer to your monsoon dress-up woes however there are more options in a slip dress, a sleeveless dress with narrow straps, is usually worn by women as innerwear, but the same can now be flaunted at parties too. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Fashion designer Nicole Richie was spotted at one of the recent awards in a metallic bronze slip dress. To complement her look, she wore a red matt lipstick, chose bronze colour to do up her eyes and slicked back her hair.Femalefirst.co.uk picked out few options for you to choose.Lace insert slip dress: It is a knee length strappy slip dress with lace insert detail.Scoop back maxi: It is strappy maxi slip dress with scoop back detail in metallic fabric and side splits.Ruffled trimmed dress: Made of cotton, it has a scoop neck, an empire waist, adjustable spaghetti straps, and a short length hem with tiered ruffle trim. To work the look perfectly, wear minimum accessories and slip your feet into strappy heels and some season friendly makeup and you are all set to take over the evenings!
With this thought, Doordarshan is set to telecast Dastan-E-Urdu, a new 13-part docu-drama series, bringing alive the fascinating history of this Indian language, breaking the myths by unveiling several interesting cross-cultural connections every Sunday at 9:30 pm. Directed by Aparna Srivastava Reddy and produced by eminent Urdu activist Kamna Prasad, the 13 part series of Dastan-E-Urdu explores the journey of Urdu language and its mushtarqa tehzeeb. Be it literature, journalism or popular culture, expressed in recent times through theatre, films, television or the new media, Urdu language has retained its eminent place in the mind and hearts of people. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’In order to showcase the language’s grandeur and its tehzeeb in purest sense, Dastan-E-Urdu has deployed deep research into Urdu’s language journey, while conceptualising it. Dastan-E-Urdu takes the viewer on a pan-India journey, capturing all the aspects and nuances that underscore Urdu’s poetic opulence, its Ganga-Jamuni syncretic essence as well its everlasting, universal appeal.‘Understanding the evolution of Urdu, gives fresh insights into who we are as Indians’ is the bottom line of the show. Covering myriad shades and influences of Urdu language, the programme is being shot all over the country – from Kashmir to Kerala. It delves into dramatisation of key personalities and reconstructions of key periods in the history of the language. Galaxy of experts including Prof Gopi Chand Narang, Javed Akhtar, Prof Shamim Hanfi, Shamsur Rehman Farukhi, Pt Gulzar Dehlvi, Prof Mushirul Hasan, Dr Karan Singh and Farooq Sheikh among other stalwarts creates a panoramic view of Urdu’s evolutionary journey for the viewer. The music for the show is given by Shubha Mudgal.
New Delhi: Trinamool Congress leader Dinesh Trivedi today asked the government to come out with the “real reasons” behind the cash crunch across the country, including whether there are plans to discontinue the Rs 2,000 denomination notes.”I feel that the real reason for the cash crunch is because the government has perhaps decided to discontinue the Rs 2,000 denomination currency notes,” Trivedi, who is a member of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Finance, said here. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsDemanding an immediate statement from the government on “the truth behind the cash crunch”, he told PTI that “the people have a right to know and you cannot hoodwink them in a democracy.” Asking whether the printing of the Rs 2,000 notes has been stopped, the Lok Sabha member said “the government should not hide facts from the people” and added that he has himself not been getting this high value currency note from the banks over the past few months. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedReferring to the demonetisation exercise in 2016, Trivedi said the Rs 2,000 denomination notes were brought in then to match the quantum of money that had gone out of circulation due to the scrapping of the old Rs 1,000 and Rs 500 currencies.Several opposition parties had yesterday questioned the cash crunch, with Trinamool Congress chief and West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee asking whether there was a financial emergency in the country.In a tweet, she had said “Seeing reports of ATMs running out of cash in several States. Big notes missing. Reminder of #DeMonetisation days. Is there a Financial Emergency going on in the country? #CashCrunch #CashlessATMs.”
Expectant mothers in their first trimester should avoid certain cosmetics, cleaning agents and medicines, to protect the developing fetal brain from chemicals that can trigger autism, suggest health researchers from York University in Canada.“The products that we use on a daily basis, such as creams and cosmetics, contain chemicals that could potentially affect a developing baby during pregnancy,” said one of the researchers professor Dorota Crawford. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Besides cosmetics and lotions, the list of products that expectant mothers should avoid during first trimester, according to the researchers, include — cleaning solvents, pesticides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid, misoprostol (a drug used for inducing labour), polychlorinated bisphenyls used as industrial lubricants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers found in wood and textiles, phthalates in PVC flooring, and children’s toys. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAside from the type of chemical a pregnant woman is exposed to, the duration, the frequency and the concentration level also impact a developing brain at the prenatal stage, the researchers said.“We recommend that women learn about health effects from exposure to chemical substances in the environment,” study co-author Christine Wong noted. According to the researchers, prenatal brain development undergoes constant changes and its normal functioning depends greatly on the presence of specific genes at any given time.Since environmental factors influence the expression levels of these critical genes, it is important for an expectant mother to be aware and cautious of exposure to these factors. The study was published in the European Journal of Neuroscience.